The formal inquiry will see a cross-party committee of ministers – named the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Coronavirus (APPG) – take evidence from bereaved families, health experts, professional bodies and the public.
Their conclusions and recommendations are set to be released by the end of the summer.
The APPG is chaired by Liberal Democrat MP Layla Moran, with vice-chairs from the Conservatives, Labour, the SNP, Green Party and Plaid Cymru.
Ms Moran said: “From the neglect of care homes to the lack of an effective testing regime, each day brings more evidence of mistakes in the handling of this pandemic – and there is every indication that we will see a potential second spike this winter.
“The country and the NHS cannot afford for these errors to be repeated. There is no time to waste when it comes to learning the lessons from the UK response to the pandemic.
“This is why we are launching our parliamentary inquiry and will be taking evidence immediately.”
Conservative MP and APPG vice-chairman Dan Poulter added: “It is important that we learn lessons about what things we can do better ahead of the difficult winter months that lie ahead.
“This winter, we are likely to face a second wave of coronavirus coupled with seasonal flu virus and it is vital that our health and care system is fully prepared for what is likely to come.”