Travellers arriving in the UK from those places after 4am on Saturday must self-isolate for 14 days, Transport Secretary Grant Shapps said on Thursday.
Mr Shapps said on Twitter: “The latest data indicates we need to remove Turkey, Poland, and Bonaire, St Eustatius and Saba from the #TravelCorridor list this week.
“This means if you arrive from these destinations from 4am Saturday 3 October, you will need to self-isolate.”
Turkey, Poland, Bonaire, St Eustatius and Saba have also been removed from the Scottish Government’s list of travel corridors, said Justice Secretary Humza Yousaf.
He also added that the penalties for people who refuse to self-isolate are to be increased to a maximum of £10,000 for repeat offenders.
He added that Scotland will also align with other UK nations and add Madeira and the Azores to the list of destinations now exempt from quarantine requirement.
Mr Shapps said: “Data from Poland shows that test positivity has nearly doubled increasing from 3.9 per cent to 5.8 per cent alongside a rapid increase in weekly cases, causing the Joint Biosecurity Centre to update their recommendation.”
Figures from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control revealed a surge of coronavirus cases in Poland and Italy.
Poland also reported 25.9 new cases per 100,000 people, increasing from 15.6 in the week prior.
A seven-day rate of 20 new cases is the threshold above which the UK Government considers triggering quarantine conditions.
It comes after Mr Shapps announced last Thursday that passengers returning from Denmark, Iceland, Slovakia and the Caribbean island of Curacao would have to self-isolate on their return.
At the time, Denmark was recording a seven-day rate of 65.2 coronavirus cases per 100,000 people, up from 33.8 a week earlier.
Iceland and Slovakia had rates of 80.4 and 25.9 respectively, while Curacao was on 66.7.
The travel industry has been badly hit by quarantine restrictions.
Chris Grayling warned on Monday that the sector is facing “mass job cuts” around the country as it is “barely able to operate” as a result of the virus.
Speaking in the Commons, the Conservative MP said: “It does not need to be like this because there are ways in which we can at least get part of this industry going again.
“I’d call on ministers to work with the industry to do at least a trial of testing at the airport and before people fly.
“I understand their concerns, I understand it may not solve all the problems but nothing we do at the moment is going to be perfect.
“But at least let us try testing on some key routes, track very carefully what happens to the passengers on those routes, see if there really is a problem and establish whether we can make airport testing work to allow the airline industry to get going, not just locally within Europe but some of the international routes that are so important to them.”
Mr Grayling earlier used his speech to warn against a “one-size-fits-all” approach to to lockdown unless absolutely necessary, adding: “It’s much easier for all of us to defend what the Government is doing, the difficult steps it’s having to take, if we can see that it’s applying the rules where they are most needed and not applying them where they’re not needed.”